What is Working Capital Loan - A Complete Guide

Want to know what is working capital loan? Read this guide on working capital loans, know it's interest rate, collateral, eligibility & processing fees, etc. at IIFL Finance.

25 Jan,2024 07:10 IST 293
Working Capital Loans: Types, Features, and Advantages

Running a business smoothly requires a constant flow of funds for day-to-day operations, and this is where working capital plays a crucial role. When the need arises for additional funds to keep your business running efficiently, a Working Capital Loan can be a valuable solution. In this guide, we'll explore various aspects of Working Capital Loans in India and why they are important for businesses.

What is a Working Capital Loan?

A Working Capital Loan is a financial tool designed to support the everyday activities of a business. It covers various operational expenses such as employee wages, accounts payable, and other short-term financial obligations. Businesses with irregular sales or seasonal cycles often face the challenge of maintaining a steady cash flow. This is where a Working Capital Loan becomes essential, providing the necessary funds to keep operations running smoothly.

It's important to note that a Working Capital Loan is not intended for business expansion or purchasing assets. Instead, it serves to meet short-term financial obligations and operational requirements, allowing businesses to focus on their long-term goals with peace of mind.

Working Capital for MSME

Working Capital Loans are primarily designed for small and medium enterprises. Access to working capital enables MSMEs to meet short-term obligations, manage inventory, and cover day-to-day expenses. These loans typically have a loan tenure of 6-48 months, varying among banks. The interest rate is determined individually by each bank, and the loan amount offered depends on your business turnover, aligning with Reserve Bank of India (RBI) guidelines.

Types of Working Capital Loans

Several types of Working Capital Loans are commonly offered by banks, catering to different business needs. Working capital in banking refers to short-term financing to cover a business's day-to-day operational needs. These loans help maintain liquidity, ensuring businesses can operate smoothly and meet their immediate financial obligations. These loans can be secured or unsecured working capital loans. Secured loans may require collateral, while unsecured loans do not. The decision depends on factors like the loan amount and the financial health of the business.

Let’s understand in detail about the different types of Working Capital Loans:

  • Overdraft Facility or Cash Credit - This financial tool provides businesses with the flexibility to withdraw more funds than their account balance. It acts as a safety net for short-term financial needs, helping companies manage fluctuations in cash flow.
  • Term Loan - A term loan offers a lump sum amount to businesses for a specified term. It is commonly used for long-term investments, such as expansion or purchasing assets, with fixed interest rates and regular repayments.
  • Bank Guarantee - A bank guarantee assures a beneficiary that the bank will fulfill the financial obligations of the applicant if they fail to do so. It enhances trust in business transactions and contracts.
  • Packing Credit - Packing credit is a short-term loan provided to businesses involved in export activities. It assists in financing the purchase, processing, and packing of goods meant for export.
  • Letter of Credit - A Letter of Credit serves as a payment guarantee, ensuring that a seller receives payment once they fulfill the terms and conditions specified in the letter. It reduces the risk for both parties in international trade.
  • Accounts Receivable Loan - This type of loan leverages accounts receivable as collateral. It provides businesses with immediate funds based on their outstanding invoices, improving cash flow and supporting ongoing operations.
  • Post Shipment Finance - Post Shipment Finance offers funding to businesses after the shipment of goods. It assists in managing cash flow during the period between shipment and the receipt of payment, especially in international trade transactions.
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Features of a Working Capital Loan:

1. Loan Amount:

The amount you can borrow through a Working Capital Loan depends on your business requirements, experience, and tenure. It is customized to meet the specific financial needs of your business.

2. Interest Rate:

The interest rate on a Working Capital Loan varies from one bank to another and is tailored to meet the borrower's needs. Different banks may offer different rates based on your business's financial profile.

3. Collateral:

Working Capital Loans can be secured or unsecured. Collateral options include property, securities, gold, investments, or the business itself. The choice depends on the borrower's capability and the bank's policies.

4. Repayment:

The loan repayment schedule is designed to align with your business's cash flow, making it manageable and less burdensome.

5. Age Criteria:

To apply for a Working Capital Loan, the borrower should typically be above 21 years and below 65 years of age.

6. Processing Fee:

Banks charge a processing fee when you apply for a Working Capital Loan. The fee amount varies among different banks.

7. Loan Applicability:

Working Capital Loans are available to a diverse range of entities, including entrepreneurs, private or public companies, partnership firms, sole proprietors, MSMEs, self-employed professionals, and non-professionals.

While Working Capital Loans are crucial for businesses, there are a few disadvantages too. Let’s understand the pros and cons of Working Capital Loans.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Working Capital Loans

One advantage of working capital loans lies in their accessibility, providing business owners with a quick solution to cover operational gaps. Another benefit is that it constitutes debt financing without requiring an equity transaction, allowing business owners to retain full control, even in urgent financial situations.

While unsecured working capital loans don't demand collateral, eligibility often relies on a high credit rating. Businesses with limited credit may need to secure the loan. Collateralized loans, although requiring assets, may pose drawbacks such as high-interest rates and potential impact on personal credit in case of missed payments or defaults.


Understanding the features and types of Working Capital Loans empowers businesses to make informed decisions, ensuring a seamless and efficient operational performance. Whether your business faces seasonal challenges or needs funds for day-to-day expenses, a Working Capital Loan can be a valuable financial tool to consider.

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Disclaimer: The information contained in this post is for general information purposes only. IIFL Finance Limited (including its associates and affiliates) ("the Company") assumes no liability or responsibility for any errors or omissions in the contents of this post and under no circumstances shall the Company be liable for any damage, loss, injury or disappointment etc. suffered by any reader. All information in this post is provided "as is", with no guarantee of completeness, accuracy, timeliness or of the results etc. obtained from the use of this information, and without warranty of any kind, express or implied, including, but not limited to warranties of performance, merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose. Given the changing nature of laws, rules and regulations, there may be delays, omissions or inaccuracies in the information contained in this post. The information on this post is provided with the understanding that the Company is not herein engaged in rendering legal, accounting, tax, or other professional advice and services. As such, it should not be used as a substitute for consultation with professional accounting, tax, legal or other competent advisers. This post may contain views and opinions which are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the official policy or position of any other agency or organization. This post may also contain links to external websites that are not provided or maintained by or in any way affiliated with the Company and the Company does not guarantee the accuracy, relevance, timeliness, or completeness of any information on these external websites. Any/ all (Gold/ Personal/ Business) loan product specifications and information that maybe stated in this post are subject to change from time to time, readers are advised to reach out to the Company for current specifications of the said (Gold/ Personal/ Business) loan.

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